Download scientific diagram | Ácido domoico Fonte: http:/ arnathtm from publication: Toxins of cyanobacteria and microalgae: a. China: determinación de la intoxicación amnésica por mariscos, ácido domoico en la carne, columnae, palio y sus productos de bivalvos. [El ácido domoico] en dosis bajas, originaría trastornos gastroentéricos, pero en dosis más elevadas puede ocasionar una lesión grave a.
|Published (Last):||11 January 2018|
|PDF File Size:||3.45 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||4.7 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
When sea lions, otters, cetaceans, humans, and other predators eat contaminated animals, poisoning may result. Exposure to this compound affects the brain, causing seizures, and possibly death.
There has been little use of domoic acid throughout history except for in Japanwhere it has been used as an anthelmintic for centuries. Domoic acid was first isolated in from a species of red algae, Chondria armatain Japan; commonly referred to as “doumoi” in Tokunoshima ‘s dialect word or “hanayanagi”. Poisonings in history have been rare, or undocumented; however, it is thought that the increase in human activities is resulting in an increasing frequency of toxic algal blooms along coastlines in recent years.
Consequently, eomoico have been affecting sea animals, birds, and humans. Inseabirds attacked the Capitola area in Californiaand though it was never confirmed, they were thought to be under the influence of domoic acid. Inon Prince Edward IslandCanada, there was a shellfish poisoning resulting in 3 deaths.
Blue mussels Mytulis edulis contaminated with domoic acid were blamed. An incident in which domoic acid may have been involved took place on June 22,when a California brown pelican flew through the windshield of a car on the Pacific Coast Domoioc. Domoic acid is a structural analog of kainic acidprolineand endogenous excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate.
Inusing 13 C – and acidi C -labelled precursors, the biosynthesis of domoic acid in the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia was examined. After addition of [1,C2]-acetate, NMR spectroscopy showed enrichment of every carbon in domoic acid, indicating incorporation of the carbon isotopes. This enrichment was consistent with two biosynthetic pathways. The labeling pattern determined that domoic acid can be biosynthesized by an isoprenoid intermediate in combination with a tricarboxylic acid TCA cycle intermediate.
Using intermediates 5 and domoio, a Diels-Alder reaction produced a bicyclic compound 7.
The effects of domoic acid have been attributed to several mechanisms, but the one of concern is through glutamate receptors.
Domoic acid is an excitatory amino acid analogue of glutamate; a neurotransmitter in the brain that activates glutamate receptors. Domoic acid has a very strong affinity for these receptors, which results in excitotoxicity initiated by an integrative action on ionotropic glutamate receptors at both sides of the synapse, coupled with the effect of blocking the channel from rapid desensitization.
In addition there is a synergistic effect with endogenous glutamate and N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonists that contribute to the excitotoxicity.
In the brain, domoic acid especially damages the hippocampus and amygdaloid nucleus. It damages the neurons by activating AMPA and kainate receptorscausing an influx of calcium. Although calcium flowing into cells is normal, the uncontrolled increase of calcium causes the cells to degenerate.
Because the hippocampus may be severely damaged, short-term memory loss occurs. It may also cause kidney damage — even at levels considered safe for human consumption, a new study in mice has revealed. The kidney is affected at a hundred times lower than the concentration allowed under FDA regulations. Domoic acid producing algal blooms are associated with the phenomenon of amnesic shellfish poisoning ASP.
Domoic acid can bioaccumulate in marine organisms such as shellfish, anchovies, and sardines that feed on the phytoplankton known to produce this toxin. It can accumulate in high concentrations in the tissues of these plankton feeders when the toxic phytoplankton are high in concentration in the surrounding waters.
File:Domoinic Acid Structural – Wikipedia
Domoic acid is a neurotoxin that inhibits neurochemical processes, causing short-term memory loss, brain damage, and, in severe cases, death in humans. In marine mammals, domoic acid typically causes seizures and tremors. Studies have shown that there are no symptomatic effects in humans at levels of 0. In the domoic acid poisoning on Prince Edward Island concentrations ranging from 0.
Dangerous levels of domoic acid have been calculated based on cases such as the one on Prince Edward island. The exact LD 50 for humans is unknown; for mice the LD 50 is 3. New research has found that domoic acid is a heat-resistant and very stable toxin, which can damage kidneys at concentrations that are times lower than what causes neurological effects.
In order to be diagnosed and treated if poisoned, domoic acid must first be detected. There is no known antidote available for domoic acid. Therefore, if poisoning occurs, it is advised to go quickly to a hospital. Cooking or freezing affected acieo or shellfish tissue that are contaminated with domoic acid does not lessen the toxicity. In addition, during processing shellfish, it is important to pay attention to environmental condition factors.
On August 18,in Capitola and Santa Cruz, California there was an invasion of what people described as chaotic seabirds. These birds were believed to be under the influence of domoic acid, and it inspired a scene in Alfred Hitchcock ‘s feature film The Birds.
In addition domoic acid was used to poison a witness in the Elementary episode “The Red Team”. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved 2 April The Marine Mammal Center. Northwest Fisheries science center. Retrieved 17 April Washington Department of Fish and wildlife. Retrieved 12 April Retrieved domooico April Evidence for glutamate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity in humans”.
Northwest fisheries science domokco.
fomoico Journal of Environmental Biology. Ionotropic glutamate receptor modulators. Neomycin Spermidine Spermine ; Other positive allosteric modulators: Retrieved from ” https: Views Read Edit View history.