There was antioxidant activity reported from Heracleum persicum (Golpar). Key Words: Heracleum persicum extracts, Sperm, Mice, Chromatin, DNA integrity. Heracleum persicum, a herbaceous perennial invasive plant native to Iran, was introduced to Europe via England (Rijal, Alm, et al., ). Effects of golpar (Heracleum persicum Desf.) and probiotics in drinking water on performance, carcass characteristics, organ weights, blood.
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Heracleum persicum is a perennial herb, commonly known as Persian hogweed or golpar, with an anise-like smell. Native to Iran, Iraq and Turkey, it mostly grows in disturbed and semi-natural habitats.
Unlike other giant hogweeds, it can propagate vegetatively when sexual reproduction fails. Due to its large size 1. The plant sap of H. It is considered to be a highly invasive pest, especially since it has colonized Nordic countries within less than years. It is also regulated as quarantine pest in Europe. Taxonomy of Heracleum persicum Desf. Various names were in effect for it, including H. The Norwegian plant was also described as H. Introduced invasive species of Heracleum are commonly known as giant hogweeds in Europe Nielsen et al.
Two species of HeracleumH. The distribution of H. However, northern Norwegian hybrids are genetically closer to H. This indicates that hybridization is much frequent between H.
It has become abundant there since its introduction. It has an anise-like smell especially leaves and seeds.
Umbels nearly convex, cm wide; rays straight or bent inwards, cm. Umbellules ; lersicum 1. Flowers per umbellule; sepals 0. Adapted from Often and GraffNielsen et al. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
The first European record of the species comes from the seed list of Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, UK, fromreported to have been introduced from Iran, probably as an ornamental Nielsen et al. Historical records indicate that seeds were planted in northern Norway as early as by English horticulturalists Nielsen et al.
Due to such history and extensive growth of the species in Norway, it is assumed that other Scandinavian populations originated from Norway. A copper factory, located in northern Norway and built in the persicun th century, recruited many Finnish workers. It was located where seeds of H. Thus, it is likely that seeds of H. On the other hand, if H. Transportation and hydrochory may still spread H.
Cross-border public and private transport is common in Europe and particularly frequent persicu Scandinavia resulting in a high probability of accidental introduction. These are disturbed and semi-natural habitats, such as roadsides and railroads, as well as meadows, grasslands, disused agricultural land, ruderal areas, coastal beaches and along streams and rivers.
It is becoming increasingly found along forest edges in Norway and has been reported as growing in birch forest Fremstad and Elven, The details regarding variation in habitat among countries are lacking. The chromosome number of H.
He observed densely hairy lower leaf surfaces; similar to H. It has also been reported to hybridize with H.
Unlike other invasive giant hogweeds, it repeatedly flowers and can survive via vegetative reproduction even if sexual reproduction fails.
In northern Norway, the plant starts growing when snow is melted, i. Average flowering age of the plant has not been quantified yet but may be approximately similar to H. The temporal variation in flower maturation is visible between primary and secondary umbels of H. It may be self-compatible but cross-pollination appears equally likely if H. Only primary umbels produce fertile seeds hetacleum secondary and tertiary umbels act as pollen donor and are abortive Often heracluem Graff, Seed production depends on the size of the inflorescence.
Each plant has umbellules and fruits per umbellule. Each fruit is composed of two mericarps seeds and, based on a conservative estimation a single plant can produce, seeds DP Rijal, The Arctic University of Norway, personal observation, Some seeds collected in early November were used in a seed germination experiment; seed germination rate was 2.
A higher rate of seed germination is expected if seed collection is done right after the seeds are mature, i. Seed reproduction also varies in H.
In any case, seed reproduction is not as vigorous as H. Such a feature is absent in other giant hogweeds. As a consequence, other giant hogweeds could not grow in most of the places where H. The extensive growth of H. A new nematode of order Tylinchida and family Heteroderidae, Heterodera persicahas been reported to parasitize on H. However, it has not been used yet to control H.
The species was first deliberately introduced as an ornamental from its native range. The occurrence of H.
Regional populations of H. This is only possible if a certain level of gene flow occurs among populations. Thus, hydrochory seems more plausible for long distance dispersal. Windblown seeds might be responsible heraceum dispersal at a very local scale. Quantitative estimates regarding the economic impact of H. However, there is always a cost associated with management of H. Dense stands of species around recreational areas e. It is shade intolerant in general. However, recent expansion in semi-natural habitats indicates its adaptation under tree canopy.
It may alter soil composition by repeated decomposition of its own biomass, thereby making soil hostile for other resident vegetation. In the long run, it may monopolize resources and can form monocultures, leading to soil erosion Fremstad and Elven, The allelopathic chemicals it produces do not allow other species to germinate and grow.
Thus, dominance of H. This leads to the reduced density of native vegetation. In the long run, residential species may be locally extinct from the areas where H. Most of the suitable habitats for native species are occupied by vigorous hybrids. Thus, there is a risk of local extinction of H. It is perrsicum or less emblematic of the city and included in a variety of traditions. Children play in it and with it but it is not so popular with persiccum Alm, Health hazards associated with H.
When there is severe sap contact and exposure to intense solar radiation, it can cause permanent damage of the skin. Even in moderate level of contact, blisters may appear in the skin and scars remains for years.
In some cases, the deep wound may reappear persifum a long time Fremstad and Elven, In its native range, H.
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In Iran, seed powder is used as a spice and flavoring agent as well as antiseptic, digestive, carminative and analgesic in the Iranian traditional medicine Radjabian et al. Several chemical constituents of medicinal values have been identified from seeds or leaves of H. Look for the diagnostic characters of the species: Other details of identifying characters are provided elsewhere Often and Graff, ; Perslcum et al. Seeds of the species can be smashed and in order to release the anise smell.
The two latter species are generally taller more than 3 mhave only a single stem, branched inflorescence up to tertiary level and an umbel which is mostly flat.
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Leaves and seeds of H. Stem is generallybasal part of the stem is purplish, and inflorescence is convex in H. Both regional and local cooperation are required to combat H.
Fortunately, all of the Nordic countries where H. Complete hrracleum of H. However, effective prevention and control measures, in the end, should help eradicate species.
Root cutting diggingmowing, inflorescence removal and entire plant removal has been recommended as suitable methods for controlling H. Instead, density of plants is increasing each year and some plants are flowering even after mowing a couple of times in a season DP Rijal, The Arctic University of Norway, personal observation, Unlike other giant hogweeds, H.
Thus, inflorescence or plant cutting would not be completely effective.