Prof. dr inż. Wiesław M. Grudzewski (Instytut Organizacji i Zarządzania w Przemyśle Kazimierz Krzakiewicz (Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu). Prof . dr hab [5] Griffin R.W., Podstawy zarządzania organizacjami, PWN, Warszawa . studia teoretyczne umożliwiające analizę poznawczą wiedzy dziedzinowej;. methods, as well as observation and participating methods (Krzakiewicz,. Cyfert, , p. 7). Johnson G., Scholes K., Whittington R. (), Podstawy strategii teoretyczne i wyniki badań empirycznych [Technological capability and product Malara Z. (), Metody i doskonalenie organizacji i zarządzania. by K. Mreła, J. Jaszek, K. Krzakiewicz, S. Cyfert, A.K. Koźmiński, E. Michalski, Bielski, M. (), Podstawy teorii organizacji i zarządzania, Warszawa. Krzakiewicz, K., Cyfert, S. (), Teoretyczne problemy zarządzania organizacjami.

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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The functionalist understanding of culture in management, [w: No part of this issue may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. All articles published in the quarterly are subject to reviews.

The implementation zadzadzania the measures aimed at improvement requires the use of a systemic approach by organizations, involving a deliberate and systematic implementation of changes. The use of a different approach may, in the short run, benefit an organization, but in the long run it will have synergy-destroying effects.

Krzakiewicz, Kazimierz

Such a systemic approach involves the use of management methods and techniques. Some of them compete with each other, some are mutually complemen- tary, and sometimes the actual differences between the methods and techniques are insignificant, which results from the desire to find the ideal solution by the authors of particular concepts. When taking actions aimed at the implementation of manage- ment methods and techniques, one should take into consideration the interactions between particular concepts, strengthening or weakening the effects of mentioned implementation.

The literature emphasizes that the proper implementation of management methods and techniques can generate added value for an organization. However, just as often, due to errors in the implementation process, the implementation of management methods and techniques reduces the efficiency of an organization and consequently, destroys values.

Therefore, every process of management method or technique imple- mentation should be considered and analyzed in terms of implementation-related benefits and risks for a specific company. In conclusion, the Author points to the limitations of the functionalist paradigm in the study of organizational culture. Pointing zrazadzania the increased interest in the concept of corporate responsibility, Charles Wankel and Agata Stachowicz-Stanusch formulate the observation about the improper preparation of the management ktzakiewicz dealing with the challenges of integrity in the global environment in an effective way, which allows them to lay down the Principles for Responsible Management Education.

Signe Vesso and Ruth Alas attempt to identify the main coaching areas for Estonian organizational change management leaders. Pointing to the importance of the systemic approach, Katarzyna Hys and Liliana Hawrysz otganizacji the evolution of the concept of the system, discuss the ways to define it and describe the areas of application of the systemic approach.

In conclusions, the Authors emphasize that the systemic approach, by forcing a holistic perception of phenomena, has a positive impact on the development of the interdisciplinarity of science. Based on a review of the literature, the Author characterizes the dimensions of organizational creativity associated with krzakkiewicz innovativeness and creative toeretyczne, and attempts krzakiewica model organizational creativity in terms of the hierarchical zwrzadzania variable.

It makes national economies more codependent than ever before, which leads to qualitatively new economic links between individual continents, countries and their regional groupings, as zarazdzania as markets and enterprises. The links result from organkzacji rising freedom and the speed of concluding and realizing international transactions, performing the flows of goods and services especially financial onesnew technologies, resources and production factors, as well as information including knowledge in the supranational scale.

Therefore, at present, it becomes more and more important to discuss the proc- ess of governance not only through the prism of regional borders determined by the scope, size krzakiewocz intensity of various kinds of capital connections, and the areas of the functioning of corporations and economic poddtawy, as well as the direct and indirect connections relations between various enterprises.

It was even proven by the transformation of the Polish economic system after It imposed sarzadzania necessity to create a new economic order, build a new economic system according to the rules of the multi-sector market economy since the effects of podstaqy economic, social, and psychological mechanisms resulting reoretyczne the central, prescriptive and distributive system of planning of the economy did not foster economic krzakieiwcz, a rational use of resources as well as of the financial and intellectual potential of Poland.

Economic processes were characterized by high costs, low labour efficiency, decapitalization of wealth and the decrease in modernity, the obsolete system of information flow and processing. Owing to the implemented system reconstruction in the macro- and micro- -organizational scale, at the beginning of the 21st century Poland became one of the first Central and Eastern European countries affiliated with the European Union. It was a particularly significant challenge for the Polish economy, and especially for its enterprises, the basic business entities in the system reconstruction process.

On the accession, Poland had to cope with the pressure of competition, market forces and other elements characteristic of the EU markets. That experience is very important today, in the face of new economic challenges which appeared in the conditions of the crisis. Thus, the system reconstruction of the Polish economy has forced enterprises to search for and create solutions adapted to the conditions of the market economy, with the use of the existing and available capital material, financial and human components, organizational structures and the capabilities of restructuring the object, the character and the scope of their economic activity.

Therefore, in the face of the current crisis situations and the contemporary globalization challenges, a special place in the process of managing enterprises of various sectors with different krzakiedicz and various legal and organizational forms should be taken by the comprehensive use of experiences and practical observations made during the preparation and the implementation of restructuring ventures in the economic transformation process in Poland.

This paper was created as a result of literature studies and empirical research con- ducted for a few years by the Author and the employees of the Department he manages, namely the Department of Economics and Organization of Enterprises at the Cracow University of Economics.


It is also a result of previous, partial publications and it is their continuation along with considerations of a theoretical and methodological, as well as analytical and cognitive character, which may be used in the current and future strategy of transformations and development of contemporary enterprises.

Globalization and the New Economy — a Dynamic Change in the Conditions of Governance and Behaviours of Contemporary Enterprises Globalization is one of the most characteristic processes of our times, creating new opportunities but also new threats since it concerns development, integration, abolition of all barriers, an increase in codependence between various countries, the expansion of the free market economy and democracy1. It probably results from its very broad subjective organizacjo and multi-threadedness, multi-sidedness and complexity of economic, social and political phenomena included in the notion.

Thus, depending on who formulates the definition of the phenomenon, the emphasis is put on different elements. See more on this: Although the globalization zarzaxzania has a complex, multi-dimensional and multi-level character, it teoretyczns possible oodstawy indicate some of its characteristics by means of the following statements Malinowska, Kucharska, The deepening process of the internationalization of the world economy and its advancement to a higher level, namely globalization, is fostered by numerous fac- tors of a various origin, character, power and the scope of influence, and a different degree of mutual codependence.

The specification and their graphic interpretation are presented in Figure 1. Apart from the quoted diversified sources, premises, manifestations and con- ditionings of globalization, which result to a great zarzavzania from the universal social, political and economic processes within individual countries or regions, we can indicate special cultural, psychological and political conditionings characteristic of them.

It may be exemplified by the so-called post-socialist countries including Polandwhere any activities in the process of the system reconstruction oorganizacji like freeing the market mechanism and creating conditions for the development of entrepreneurship in the national and international dimension found favourable conditions and, as a result, numerous followers.

Globalization forces contemporary enterprises, organizations and institutions to search for new tools to build strategies adapted to the requirements of the global mar- ket, create flexible organizational structures and systems of work, as well as implement the rules of corporate social responsibility.

Global thinking and acting would not be possible without radical changes in the sphere of communication and information flow, including the development of information technologies and the advent of the Internet.

Thus, in the litera- ture on the subject special attention is paid to the development of information and communication kezakiewicz as the globalization factor. The development of computer and information techniques and technologies enabled not only the acceleration of product and capital flow but also an increase rkzakiewicz the quantity and quality of information, as well as faster and broader access to it.

At the same time, it created new opportunities for building competitive advantage based on knowledge management systems and using the achievements of contemporary information technology.

Globalization versus enterprise Source: The basic source of gaining competitive advantage in the 21st century economy is knowledge treated as a separate resource of an organization. The skills achieved by employees not only in the process of direct education but also in the progress of zarzadzaniaa acquired at work may be often treated as a unique production zarzadzzania tor Dobija, Podstasy managing knowledge, not only do enterprises build their competitiveness but they also create conditions for transforming knowledge into a component of their market value.

Hence, on the one hand, we deal with radi- cal changes in the role of individual asset components in building competitive- ness of the enterprise and creating its value, and on the other hand, we deal with changes in the role and ability to use human resources in the enterprise and the evolution of human resources management related to it towards human capital management.

The growing significance of intangible assets, such as knowledge and intellectual property, provided a foundation of the occurrence of the term of New Economy, closely connected with the development of new telecommunications and the Inter- net, and the progressing globalization processes. Therefore, the New Economy and the information revolution related to it may be regarded as another stage of the historical economic development, following the industrial krzqkiewicz and the scientific and technical revolution.

The New Economy of the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries is a consequence of the changes caused by the adaptation of innova- tive technologies and business practices, as well as the growing global competition, leading to a significant and permanent increase in effectiveness Krawiec, Unprecedented dynamics of the economic development observed nowadays in numerous countries is, in the first place, the effect of learning and using human innovations, making a lot of physical resources obsolete to a greater and greater extent Krawiec, The entering onto a new stage of development by contemporary economies is called the New Economy era see: Focusing mainly on services and broader investment in intangible factors patents, licences, trademarks etc.

The ris- ing activity of the owners of global organizations has brought about an increase in the pressure on their effectiveness and economic rationality discussed from the point of view of the realization of financial benefits for the owners, which, in the orvanizacji external and internal conditions, requires the use of adequate tools and instruments of professional management. At the same time, the development and the popularization of New Economy achievements have created broader opportuni- ties to use the achievements of the scientific and technical progress, and raise the effectiveness of enterprises, as well as implement organizational activities resulting from different troretyczne of perceiving economic processes than before.

The Orientation of Enterprises on the Situations and Changes undergoing in their Environment in the Conditions of the Crisis Krzakieeicz crises have been known for a long time since they have occurred in all historical periods and all types of economies.

The present crisis, going back tostarted from the financial crisis and manifested itself in the collapse of the whole financial system monetary system, debenture market, the stock exchange, insur- ance and real estate market due to the internationalization of activity and links of a global character among financial institutions. The consequences of the events in the stricte financial sphere were reflected in the sphere of real economy in the teoretyczzne of: Table 1 presents the most frequently indicated causes of the contemporary global economic crisis.

Inability of correct valuation of risk related to financial assets, 4. Sharp slump in the American real estate market whose impact is huge, due to The a large scale of the used mortgage credits in the uS and complicated financial Chancellery instruments based on mortgageof the Sejm of 2.


Low capital adequacy understood as a level of minimum capitals of financial the Republic institutions in comparison with their assets of numerous American financial of Poland institutions.

Capital weakness of many American financial conglomerates became particularly dangerous in juxtaposition with the first type of the phenomena. Taylor Classic explanation of financial krzakiewjcz going back to hundred years ago is that they are brought about by surpluses, often monetary surpluses, which led to economic recovery and unavoidable failures bankruptcies.

During the current crisis, we had a recovery in the housing sector real estate marketwhich, in turn, led to the disorganization of finance in the uS and other countries. Monetary surpluses were the main cause of recovery in economy and the resulting bankruptcies and financial defeats.

Krzakiewicz, Kazimierz [WorldCat Identities]

The changes that have taken place on the global market, and have been directly and indirectly related to the world crisis, stamped their influence on almost all fields of economy, and on the behaviours of contemporary enterprises. The survival and their development require not only the understanding of the global business and economic challenges resulting from the crisis, but first of all possessing the skill of fast adaptation to the changing economic reality.

It means that in the global economy and in the conditions of the crisis, enterprises have been forced not only to constant search and creation of adaptation or anticipation ventures to more and more turbulent environment, but also to such system reconstruc- tion which will let them acquire new qualities, procedures and actions needed for transformations and expansiveness.

It is proven by the experience of numerous countries, includ- ing, among others, the experience derived from the system reconstruction and the structural and ownership transformations of the Polish economic entities, which have been lasting for over 20 years now. There is always an alternative for developmental activities and possibilities, the position even a satisfactory one in the market and the organizational state and economic situa- tion of the enterprise.

Thus, the need for the introduction of changes leading to the growth in effectiveness of governance concerns all enterprises: Experience, especially in the area of anti-crisis management proves that competi- tion among enterprises is getting stronger and stronger and results in the dynamics of changes which was hard to imagine until recently. The turbulent and fast changing environment is today a natural environment in which practically all economic entities have to conduct their activity.

Its consequence may be a statement that contemporary enterprises have to perform constant verification of their basic strategic assumptions and search for efficient instruments assuring the improvement of their effectiveness and an ability to react quickly to the undergoing changes during the crisis which result not only in negative consequences but also constructive elements.

Enterprises always function in a certain specific external environment, namely in a connection with other enterprises, in a particular region, and finally in conjunction with the state. The environment in which contemporary enterprises are functioning is becom- ing more and more complex and changeable, and it imposes an absolute necessity to adapt to it on all enterprises.

On the one hand, the number of economic entities and institutions which influence the functioning of individual enterprises is going up. On the other hand, a constant extension of the scope of the links between enterprises and the environment is observed. Today, the scope of the links between enterprises and the environment is not limited to the technical and economic sphere. It extends to the sphere of social, political and culture-related problems. The multiplicity and complexity of mutual links between enterprises and the environment is illustrated by Table 2.

Alongside the increase in the complexity and changeability of the environment, the possibilities of influencing it by enterprises become significantly limited, but their codependence on the environment is rising. Changes taking place in the envi- ronment throw enterprises off the state of internal and external balance.

In order to exist, achieve and maintain competitive advantage, every enterprise has to be in the state of balance via adequate adaptation and anticipation processes directed inside and outside. Therefore, managers permanently face a necessity to take current and perspective economic decisions changing the scope, the methods and the logics of enterprise functioning in order to ensure and restore the internal and external balance to enterprises.

Cyfert, Szymon [WorldCat Identities]

The orientation of enterprises towards situations and changes undergo- ing in their macro- teoretycczne micro-environment, submitting to its present and future needs is, in the conditions of the crisis and the globalization challenges, a requirement of the enterprise existence and development.

Only thanks to such ventures, a long-term multiplication of enterprise capital value will be possible, and at the same time it will allow for the tdoretyczne of the basic goal of its owners, namely the maximization of the enterprise market value. The fulfillment of this kind of expectations is strictly conditioned on the realization of constant, fundamental changes of a restructuring character in the enterprise restructuring.

Thus, they constitute a driving force of an increase in the enterprise effectiveness, directly determining the speed of creating their value. Therefore, in order to survive and maintain their position on the market in the new global economic reality, enterprises have to be able to foresee and accurately assess their situation, that is to be able to act effectively, to develop in the constantly changing environment, and to take decisions which determine the way, the form, the speed of realization, the scope, depth and comprehensiveness of structural changes.

These are current determinants not only of the survival of the enterprise and the restoration of the balance with the evolving environment, but also the formulation of expansive dynamic plans by it, ensuring effective functioning, achieving competi- tive advantage and further development.

Hitherto prevailing experiences and practice prove that the market is a verifier of economic activity, imposing a proper reaction on the enterprise, and at the same time it sets the price and the sense of the implementing the programmes of changes. Thus, market economy requires flexibility krzakiewicx activity from the enterprise, and the skill to adapt not only to changes already existing in the market, but also to changes foreseen or expected.